Abstract：Booming urbanization triggers a significant modification of surface landscape configuration and hence complex urban climates. Considerable concerns exist regarding impacts of impervious surface area (ISA) and/or urban green space (UGS) on land surface temperature (LST). However, a knowledge gap still exists concerning the influence of urban landscape components and related spatial configuration on LST. To date, case studies have usually focused on individual cities, while few reports have addressed the impacts of urban surface components and relevant spatial configurations on LST within cities of different sizes, at different latitudes, and with different climatic backgrounds. Considering case studies from different latitudes and various climatic backgrounds can assist in obtaining comprehensive viewpoints about impacts of urban surface features on LST in both space and time. In this paper we analyzed data from three urban agglomerations, Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD), over the period 2000–2015. These three regions are densely populated with the most developed socio-economy across China, and are also dominated by booming urbanization. Based on Landsat remotely sensed data, we included the spatial pattern of surface components and related configuration into our analysis, quantifying impacts of spatial configuration of surface components on LST in both space and time. We found generally rising LST over all cities, which can be attributed to continuous urban expansion-induced decreased UGS. Generally, LST over ISA was 0.96–7.96 °C higher than that over UGS. We investigated the impacts of spatial pattern of land surface components on LST and found that the joint effect of the composition and spatial configuration of land surface components had the most significant impact on LST. Specifically, ISA and UGS had higher impact on LST than the impact of geometry of the ISA and UGS on LST. In the future, continuous expansion of ISA and continuous shrinking of UGS will drive the rising tendency of LST. Moreover, a larger rising tendency of LST will be observed in larger sized cities than smaller sized cities.